Multibeam Target Detection

This operator generates multibeam targets from multibeam data. Targets are created from groups of adjoining data points that are not thresholded. Each resulting target has a range and major-axis angle corresponding to the geometric center of the group.

You can choose target detection settings, target linking settings and a bottom elimination method on the Multibeam target detection page of the Variable Properties dialog box.

You can choose the target properties that are calculated by this operator on the Target page of the Variable Properties dialog box.

For more information refer to About target properties.

Echoview accepts a single multibeam SV variable as input.

Hint:  You may wish to remove background noise before detecting targets. One method for doing this is to create a virtual variable that identifies background objects using the Mean of n pings operator and then subtract this variable from its operand using the Minus operator.

See: Multibeam target detection algorithm for more information.

Notes:

Settings

The Multibeam Target Detection Variable Properties dialog box pages include (common) Variable Properties pages and these operator pages:

Operands page

Filter Targets page

Target page

Target Detection page

The Filter Targets page is used to filter the multibeam targets for display. The Target page is used to specify target properties to calculate when targets have been identified.

The settings on the Target Detection page are used to specify target detection and target linking criteria and eliminate bottom data from the target detection process. The settings are applied to each multibeam ping (a 2-dimensional echogram).

Under Bottom elimination choose one of the options:

Settings

Description

None

Choose this option if you do not want to eliminate bottom data or there is no bottom data in the echogram.

Specified maximum range

Choose this option if you want to exclude data outside a specific range. Enter the range in meters.

Under Target Linking the settings for a target linking algorithm are available:

Settings

Description

Link target clusters

Select Link target clusters when you want to apply seed-satellite linking to detected targets.

For more information refer to the Target linking algorithm.

Seed threshold

Specifies the seed classification threshold (cm2).

Satellite threshold

Specifies the satellite classification threshold (cm2).

Link distance

Specifies the linking distance for classified targets. This value is used to determine candidate targets to link to a target of interest. The distance between the target of interest and the candidate must be less than the Link distance. For more information refer to Target linking algorithm - Linking distance.

Link satellite clusters

Select Link satellite clusters when you want to apply satellite-satellite linking to detected targets.

Retain unlinked satellites

Select Retain unlinked satellites when you want to retain unlinked satellites as detected targets.

When you click Advanced the Target Detection settings are displayed:

Settings

Description

Maximum horizontal linking distance (beams)

Maximum horizontal distance (in beams) allowed between two beams being linked to form a detected target.

Note: The two linking distances form the vertical and horizontal semi-axes of an ellipse. The ellipse is, in effect, moved around the boundary of a target candidate. If any part of any other target candidate falls within the ellipse, a link is created between the candidates.

Maximum vertical linking distance (samples)

Maximum vertical distance (in samples) allowed between two samples being linked to form a target.

Minimum candidate length (cm)

Minimum length allowed for a target candidate.

Minimum candidate height (cm)

Minimum height allowed for a target candidate.

Minimum target length (cm)

After linking is completed, targets shorter than this length will not be included in detections.

Minimum target height (cm)

After linking is completed, targets shorter than this height will not be included in detections.

Notes:

Target page

Under Multibeam target properties the following calculations are available:

Setting

Description

Multibeam target properties

Select or clear the target properties that you want the Multibeam target detection algorithm to calculate.

Available target properties are:

Target area
Target area edge midpoints
Target compactness
Target compactness edge midpoints
Target intensity variation
Target length
Target length across beams
Target perimeter
Target perimeter edge midpoints
Target range extent
Target orientation

Notes:

  • To achieve better performance with the Multibeam target detection operator, clear the target properties that you don't require for analysis.
  • For more information about primary, optional and manual target properties refer to Target properties from multibeam data.

Under Target strength source the following settings are available:

Settings

Description

Mean Sv

Choose this option to set the detected target TS value to the mean Sv of the samples in the target.

Maximum Sv

Choose this option the set the detected target TS value to the maximum Sv of the samples in the target.

Algorithms

Multibeam Target Detection algorithm

The multibeam target detection algorithm and the output of the target linking algorithm work as follows. For each ping:

  1. Create a new multibeam boolean ping with the same ping geometry as the Sv operand.
  2. Fill this new ping with true/false values as follows:
    1. false if
      the operand's Sv value is less than the Minimum threshold setting on the Data page of the Variable Properties dialog box, or
      the operand's Sv value is greater than the Maximum threshold setting on the Data page of the Variable Properties dialog box, or
      the data point's range is greater than the maximum range defined under Bottom elimination on the Multibeam_target_detection_page of the Variable Properties dialog box, or
    2. otherwise true
  3. Using the settings on the Target page of the Variable Properties dialog box, create a new multibeam target for each island of neighboring true values, calculating from the Sv data points they represent:
    1. the Target strength using the setting specified under Target strength source on the Target_page of the Variable Properties dialog box.
    2. the geometric center, which determines the minor-axis and major-axis angular position of the multibeam target.
    3. the estimated target length.
    4. the estimated target length across beams.
    5. the estimated target range extent.
    6. the estimated target perimeter length.
    7. the estimated target area.
    8. the estimated target coefficient of variation of intensity.
    9. the estimated target compactness.
    10. the estimated target thickness.
    11. the estimated target perimeter edge midpoints.
    12. the estimated target area edge midpoints.
    13. the estimated target compactness edge midpoints.
    14. the estimated target orientation.
  4. Create a Multibeam targets ping containing all the targets thus identified.
  5. If Link target clusters is selected on the Multibeam_target_detection_page of the Variable Properties dialog box, apply the Target linking algorithm to the identified targets.
    1. otherwise go to Step 7.
  6. Using the targets returned by the Target linking algorithm and the settings on the Target page of the Variable Properties dialog box, calculate from the Sv data points contained in the targets:

    1. the Target strength using the setting specified in under Target strength source on the Multibeam_target_detection_page of the Variable Properties dialog box.
    2. the geometric center, which determines the minor-axis and major-axis angular position of the multibeam target.
    3. the estimated target length.
    4. the estimated target length across beams.
    5. the estimated target range extent.
    6. the estimated target perimeter length.
    7. the estimated target area.
    8. the estimated target coefficient of variation of intensity.
    9. the estimated target compactness.
    10. the estimated target thickness.
    11. the estimated target perimeter edge midpoints.
    12. the estimated target area edge midpoints.
    13. the estimated target compactness edge midpoints.
    14. the estimated target orientation.
  7. Create a new Multibeam targets ping containing all the identified targets and discard the multibeam boolean ping.

Target Linking algorithm

The Target linking algorithm applies simple classification and linking rules to detected targets passed from the Multibeam target detection algorithm.

Classification

Target linking term

Description

Seed

A detected multibeam target with a target area (cm2) greater or equal to the Seed threshold on the Multibeam target detection page of the Variable Properties dialog box.

Satellite

A detected multibeam target with a target area (cm2) that is:

  1. Less than the Seed threshold on the Multibeam target detection page of the Variable Properties dialog box.

    And
  2. Greater than or equal to the Satellite threshold on the Multibeam target detection page of the Variable Properties dialog box.

Note: Targets with a target area (cm2) less than the Satellite threshold are rejected.

Linking distance

Target linking term

Description

Linking distance

Value specified by Linking distance on the Multibeam target detection page of the Variable Properties dialog box. For a specified target, the potential targets to link to are found at distances less than the Linking distance.

A 'closest point in the target' technique is applied to find potential targets to link to. The technique creates points at the top and bottom mid-points of each beam and then determines the closest points. This technique avoids problems associated with linking large targets to small targets.

Outcomes

Summary of outcomes for Multibeam target detection target linking selections.

The selection on the
Multibeam Target Detection page

Applies

Returns these targets to the Multibeam target detection algorithm

Link target clusters

Seed-satellite linking.

Newly linked seed-satellite targets.

Unlinked seed targets.

If Retain unlinked satellites is selected, then unlinked satellite targets are returned. Otherwise unlinked satellite targets are discarded.

Link target clusters
and
Link satellite clusters

Seed-satellite linking,
then
satellite-satellite linking.

Newly linked seed-satellite targets.

Unlinked seed targets.

Linked satellite-satellite targets.

If Retain unlinked satellites is selected, then unlinked satellite targets are returned. Otherwise unlinked satellite targets are discarded.

The Target linking algorithm works in the following way.

For the identified targets in each ping from the output of step 4 of the Multibeam target detection algorithm:

  1. Assign a seed or satellite classification to targets.
  2. If there are no satellites and no seeds the multibeam ping is empty. Return to the Multibeam detection algorithm.
  3. If there are no satellites and there are seeds, the seeds become the new targets. Return to the Multibeam detection algorithm.
  4. If there are no seeds and there are satellites and:
    1. Link satellite clusters is not selected on the Multibeam target detection page of the Variable Properties dialog box then:
      1. Discard targets, the multibeam ping is empty.
      2. If Retain unlinked satellites is selected, then:
        • unlinked satellite targets
      3. are returned to the Multibeam target detection algorithm. Otherwise unlinked satellite targets are discarded and an empty ping is returned.
    2. Link satellite clusters is selected on the Multibeam target detection page of the Variable Properties dialog box then:
      1. For the largest satellite only, create a new target when a satellite is less than the Linking distance to the largest satellite.
      2. Reassign seed and satellite classifications to the remaining targets and newly linked targets.
      3. Repeat Steps 4.b.i and 4.b.ii until no further satellites can be linked.
      4. If Retain unlinked satellites is selected, then:
        • linked satellite targets
        • unlinked satellite targets
      5. are returned to the Multibeam target detection algorithm. Otherwise the listed targets except for unlinked satellites are returned.
  5. If there are seeds and satellites:
    1. Create a new target when a satellite is less than the Linking distance to a seed. Do this for all eligible seeds.
    2. Reassign a seed or satellite classification to newly linked targets and remaining targets.
    3. Repeat 5.a and 5.b until there are no more links to seeds.
    4. If Link satellite clusters is not selected on the Multibeam target detection page of the Variable Properties dialog box then:
      1. If Retain unlinked satellites is selected, then:
        • linked seed-satellite targets
        • unlinked seed targets
        • unlinked satellite targets
      2. are returned to the Multibeam detection algorithm. Otherwise the listed targets except for unlinked satellites are returned.
    5. Otherwise Link satellite clusters is selected on the Multibeam target detection page of the Variable Properties dialog box.
      1. For the largest satellite only: create a new target when a satellite is less than the Linking distance to the largest satellite.
      2. Reassign a seed or satellite classification to newly linked targets and remaining targets.
      3. Repeat Steps 5.e.i and 5.e.ii until no further satellites can be linked.
      4. If Retain unlinked satellites is selected, then:
        • linked seed-satellite targets
        • unlinked seed targets
        • linked satellite-satellite targets
        • unlinked satellite targets
      5. are returned to the Multibeam target detection algorithm. Otherwise the listed targets except for unlinked satellites are returned.

See also

About virtual variables
Operator licensing in Echoview