Target properties from multibeam data

In Echoview, most target properties are calculated when creating a virtual variable with the Multibeam target detection operator.

Once targets have been detected, target properties can be examined by:

Working with multibeam target properties

There are many combinations of operators that can be used to work with target properties in multibeam data. The order that you apply operators and the combination of operators you use will be determined by your data and analysis needs.

In the Dataflow window tool

  1. Use the Multibeam target detection operator to detect targets in your multibeam data, with:
    1. a multibeam Sv variable as the input operand
    2. appropriate Multibeam target detection settings and Target linking settings
    3. appropriate Target property settings and Target strength source settings
  2. Use the Target conversion operator to create a single targets variable, with:
    1. your Multibeam target detection variable as the input operand
  3. Use the Target length conversion operator to display Target_length in a target length echogram, with:
    1. your Target conversion variable as the input operand
  4. Use the TS substitution operator to substitute alternative target property values for TS, with either:
    1. your Target conversion variable; or
    2. your Target length conversion variable as the input operand
  5. Use the Target property threshold operator to threshold targets, with either:
    1. your Multibeam target detection variable; or
    2. your Target conversion variable as the input operand

Notes:

Performance tip: If you are working with single target echograms derived or created from the Target conversion operator, a technique to greatly improve Echoview's performance is to:

  1. Export your single target data.
  2. Add the exported single target data file to a new fileset in the original EV file.
  3. Display and use the echogram for the exported single target data.

Notes:

Multibeam target properties

The following target properties are available. Some target properties are primary calculations. Others are calculated when the target property is selected on the Target page of the Variable Properties dialog box of the multibeam target detection virtual variable.

It is possible to manually add and store two additional target properties:

The following properties are primary calculations:

Angle minor axis

The minor-axis angular position at the geometric center of the multibeam target,

Angle major axis

The major-axis angular position at the geometric center of the multibeam target.

Target thickness (cm)

Target thickness is the maximum range (interval) covered by the outline of samples per beam in the target.

Target class

A Target class can be applied to multibeam targets using the Target classification tool .

Use the Classes page of the EV File Properties dialog box to specify new target classes. Target Classes are stored, displayed and managed in the Target Metadata window. Target classes are also displayed in the Details dialog box. The variable Target_class is exported in single target data exports and target length exports.

Target length (cm)

Target_length in multibeam data is estimated using the maximum distance between any two above threshold samples in the target, measured by angle and range from the transducer. The estimate is subject to qualifications that are inherent with the use of the Target conversion operator. In short, the identified targets do not a have a strict TS value, rather the "TS" value is calculated by the method specified under Target strength source on the Target page of the Variable Properties dialog box.

Target length data is calculated for the targets detected in a multibeam target detection virtual variable

Once target length data has been created, target lengths can be examined by:

The analysis export variable Target length mean is calculated and output for onscreen and exported single target and fish track analyses on single targets echograms.

You can also threshold single targets with respect to Target length using the Target property threshold operator.

Notes:

Target length manual (cm)

Target length can be manually measured on multibeam target echograms using the Tape measure tool .

You can store manual measurements for targets and view and manage the data on the Target MetaData window. Manual target lengths, once stored, are displayed on the Details dialog box. The export variable Target_length_manual is exported in single target data exports. Details about the display of stored target lengths can be found in the discussion on the multibeam targets echogram.

For more information refer to Storing manual target lengths and the Performance tip note.

View target length and target length manual together

It is useful to analyze the target length and target length manual values together on screen. The screenshot below depicts a TS substitution variable. Brown targets have manual and estimated target lengths, grey targets have estimated target lengths only. The highlighted values in the Details dialog box are the manual target length (orange TS value) and the estimated target length (yellow Uncompensated TS value) for the target under the mouse pointer.

To view target lengths and target length manual measurements on the same virtual single target echogram:

  1. Set up step 4 of Working with multibeam target properties.
  2. Use a suitable single target variable as the input operand.
  3. In the TS value section on the TS substitution page of the Variable Properties dialog box enter the following settings:
    1. Populate TS with values from: Target length manual
    2. Set no data values to: Zero (-999 dB)
  4. In the Uncompensated TS section on the TS substitution page of the Variable Properties dialog box enter the following settings:
    1. Populate Uncompensated TS values from: Target length.
  5. On the Echogram Display page of the Variable Properties dialog box enter the following settings:
    1. Color display minimum: -999
  6. On the Data page of the Variable Properties dialog box enter the following settings:
    1. Select Apply minimum threshold.
    2. Select Lock to color display minimum.
  7. Click OK.
  8. View the TS substitution echogram.

Target length across beams (cm)

This property is faster to calculate than the Target_length property and it can be more accurate for situations where fish are swimming perpendicular to the central beam.

Target length across beams is determined by:

  1. Finding for each beam in the target, the range of the midpoint between the shallowest sample and deepest sample.
  2. Finding the length of the line that traverses the target when the midpoints are joined.

Note: The Target_length_across_beams property is often faster to calculate than the Target_length property.

Target range extent (cm)

Target range extent is calculated as the range difference between the shallowest sample and the deepest sample in the target. This property could be used to analyse the target's swim-shape. When Target_range_extent is of the order of the Target_thickness, the target is fully extended and straight. While the target swims the Target_range_extent will vary between the Target_thickness and the value that reflects the maximum swim-shape. "Tail-beat" could be correlated to a selected (and repeated) value of Target_range_extent.

The screen shot (above) displays the:

Target range extent
echogram

Target range extent is created using the TS substitution operator.

  • Target_range_extent is substitued for TS.
  • Target_area is substituted for TS uncomp.

The virtual variable has a DIDSON color scheme, with lighter colors representing larger values of the Target_range_extent. In this case, the variation of light and dark segments the shape representing the progress of the moving fish. The segmentation together with the relationship between the Target_range_ extent and Target_thickness could yield information about swim shape and tail-beat.

The display size of the single targets represent Target_range_extent as well.

Looped multibeam replay with the Target overlay echogram is running.

Maximum intensity
echogram

Maximum intensity is created by the Maximum intensity operator and displays a maximum intensity echogram. The echogram provides a synopsis of the data and is also useful for examining tail beat characteristics. Tail beat characteristics and derived tail beat frequency, can be useful for species identification and bioenergetics studies.

Recent experimental work by Anna-Maria Mueller3, using the Sound Metrics Corporation viewer, suggest that such sample intensity variation can be correlated with tail-beat frequency and could be used for species identification.

Target overlay
echogram

Target overlay is created using the Target overaly operator. Samples in detected targets are shown on top of the original multibeam data. Target linking has been selected with the multibeam target detection.

Details

The Details dialog box shows target information for the mouse pointer on the Target range extent echogram. Note the Target range extent and Target thickness are the same. Visually this corresponds to a staight fish.

Color legend

The Color legend shows the DIDSON color scheme for the Target range extent echogram.

Target perimeter (cm)

Target perimeter is calculated as the sum of the target circumference contributions from the above-threshold samples in the target. The measurement uses the full sample space. For targets that have only one sample, the target length will be 0.0cm but the target perimeter will be the sum of the sides of the sample.

On a multibeam target echogram:

Target perimenter edge midpoints (cm)

The Target perimenter edge midpoints calculation uses the distance between outside sample-edge midpoints of the target. The use of outside sample-edge midpoints results in a smaller target perimeter value. This perimeter calculation is the sum of the target circumference contributions from the above-threshold samples in the target. For targets that have only one sample, the target length will be 0.0cm but the target perimeter will be the sum of the distances between the sample-edge midpoints.

Target samples and perimeter with sample edge midpoints

The diagram above shows a detected multibeam target (circle) and input data under the target; the target samples span five beams of the multibeam ping. A red perimeter is drawn between outside sample-edge midpoints.

Outside sample-midpoint geometry

Sample edge midpoint geometry

Edge midpoint perimeter

Echoview makes use of sample ranges (in meters, from the operand), half of the beam width angle (radians) and the law of Cosines to calculate distances between target sample-edge midpoints. Diagram I shows two samples (in grey fill) within one beam of a multibeam ping. The angle theta is half of the beam width. The red lines show the perimeter traced between outside sample-edge midpoints.

The equation for the distance R1R2 in meters using the law of Cosines is:

Distance between R1 and R2

The law of Cosines equation is used for cases like R3R4, as well as for purely horizontal distances. Purely vertical distances are based on the difference in range of the midpoints.

Target perimeter edge midpoints equation

Target area (cm2)

Target area is defined as the sum of the areas of all samples within the boundary of the target.

Where:

Notes:

Target area edge midpoints (cm2)

Target area edge midpoints is the area within the boundary defined by Target perimeter edge midpoints. The use of sample-edge midpoints results in a smaller target perimeter value and as a result a smaller target area value.

Echoview makes use of sample ranges (in meters, from the operand), half of the beam width angle (radians) and geometry to calculate the area enclosed. Enclosed rectangular areas are calculated in in the normal way.

Enclosed non-rectangular areas are calculated by the method shown in diagrams II, III and IV. The non-rectangular area (m2) equation is:

Non-rectangular area equation

Target area edge midpoints equation

Target intensity variation

Target intensity variation is calculated as:

Where:

CV = Coefficient of Variation of the intensity of the samples in the target.
σ =

standard deviation of the intensity of the samples in the target.

μ = mean intensity of samples in the target.
xi = intensity value of sample i in the target.
N = number of samples in the target.

Target compactness

A common compactness measure is the Circularity ratio1. It is the ratio of area of the shape to the area of a circle having the same perimeter. It is accepted that a circle has the most compact shape.

However in pattern recognition literature , the inverse of the Circularity ratio is often discussed2.

Hence, Echoview's target compactness is calculated as:

Target compactness edge midpoints

The Target compactness edge midpoints value is calculated using the Target perimeter edge midpoints and the Target area edge midpoints values. The use of sample-edge midpoints results in a smaller target perimeter and smaller target area.

Target compactness edge midpoints

Target orientation

The Target_orientation property is the angle between the Target_length derived axis and the line perpendicular to the transducer axis. The Target_length axis is defined as the line joining the two most distant samples in the target. The available range of values is as follows, 0 ° &le; Target_orientation < 180 ° .

Orientation sketch

The annotated screen shot (left) shows a Multibeam target detection sector plot with four (fish) targets. A selection of tabulated target properties is given for the four targets.

Target
TS value
(dB)
Target length
(cm)
Target orientation
(degrees)
Length across beams (cm)
1
25.1
81.9
13.0
96.9
2
27.1
85.9
8.6
93.9
3
15.5
63.8
171.2
68.4
4
18.9
51.6
173.9
52.2

Notes:

  • Target_orientation can not discern the head or tail of a target.
  • You can use other target properties and visual inspection of the original echogram to deduce further information.
  • Target_orientation is calculated (and available with analysis exports) whether or not Target_length is on the Target page of the Variable Properties dialog box.

See also

About multibeam targets
About_target_properties
Target_length_from_single_beam_data
Measuring_the_distance_between_two_points
Multibeam_target_detection_algorithm
About_fish_tracks
About_detecting_fish_tracks

1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compactness_measure_of_a_shape

2. Mulligan T, 2008, Scientist Emeritus, Pacific Biological Station, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada, pers. comm.

3. Anna-Maria Mueller, Aquacoustics, pers. comm.